NO - no centralized credit agencies in the Philippines , unlike the U.S. for no credit accounts . Each credit institution and the credit card companies assess their creditworthiness based on your income , assets and other financial information .
With bankruptcy , there is no such thing as Chapter 13, 7 or whatever . If you are bankrupt , is bankrupt . Remember this is a country with a lot of poor people , where 24 million or so who can not even eat three times a day . He does not care if you have money before and after he became bankrupt . This is a country where people live in boxes , in marginal areas .
If you can not pay your debts , you can be sued . Thank your lucky stars that the legal system in the Philippines is very slow which may be in court for two years . Most do not bother to sue another person . Unlike the U.S., where you can be sued because your dog poop in a backyard neighbors and other small things , in the Philippines , even if you murder someone the other party can not sue (why sue when they can not even afford to eat let alone hire a lawyer and file a lengthy court battle ? )
But no, it's a completely different world in the Philippines compared to bankruptcy protection in the U.S. .
In answer to your question, yes , you can go to jail if you do not pay your debts . I know of some who went to jail because creditors running after them and went out of business